Tag Archives: Child Health

How to Get Kids Interested in Nutrition

Is it time for your children to learn how to make their own healthy food choices? Exploring the world of nutrition can be exciting. As soon as kids can start opening the fridge to pull out an afternoon snack, the importance of nutritional education becomes even more apparent. Are you ready to have fun teaching your children how to make smart food choices? This guide will help you get started.

English: Healthy nutrition pyramid with 7 to 9...

English: Healthy nutrition pyramid with 7 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables to get precious phytonutrients to feed your body at the cellular level. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It’s All About the Motivation

Kids love to ask “why”. It’s the go-to response whether you’re asserting a rule or just walking through the park. This curiosity is what makes early education so effective. Your child will actually want to make healthy food choices after learning about the benefits.

Sometimes choices are the greatest motivator. Does your child have any favorite fruits or vegetables? He may not even know his favorite foods are healthy. Offer a variety, and let him choose. Ask why he made the choice and then explain why it’s a good, healthy choice. Make it a habit of asking, “Why did you choose this?” Most kids don’t think about why they chose a certain snack but the questioning exercise will help him remember to think about it more carefully.

The doctor’s office is also a great place to learn – pediatricians are great at explaining why good food leads to a strong body and brain, and why bad food leads to health complications. Let your child ask some of those pressing questions she may have, like what would happen if she ate only one food for a year. Don’t be afraid to be a little bit silly.

Young people prefer to follow advice they can understand. It’s hard to stick with a healthy diet if you don’t know the effects of a bad one.

Rewarding Ways to Teach Nutrition

Teaching nutrition is much easier when fun is involved. Visiting farms and snack food factories are a great way to show the distinction between the two types of food – the junk food factory may be huge and exciting, but even kids can see that the magic of the farm is all about life and vitality, and healthy living.

Cooking is also a great way to learn. Try these activities and take time to explain the health benefits: bake a meal instead of frying, cook with healthy ingredients, and opt for fresh foods instead of canned when possible. Try making a healthy dessert to remove the misconception that only junk food tastes good. Make a smorgasbord representing the suggested food pyramid portions. Kids need to know what makes a meal healthy compared to unhealthy meals.

We hope that your child can get just as excited about nutrition as you are. You have already taken an active interest, which means you’re already off to the best start possible.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/7331527

By Nelly Bee

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Child Nutrition: Help Your Child Be Healthy

Cover of "Solid Start (Penguin Original)&...

Cover of Solid Start (Penguin Original)

The food your child eats is important not only now but also for the rest of his or her life. A small child is going to need various types of foods for energy to play, grow, and to build a healthy body. Muscles and bones are forming over the first fifteen years of life, and when eating the right types of foods and including smart nutrition your child is more likely to avoid sickness and to ward off some types of disease.

Your child’s nutrition

Your child’s nutrition is going to start with you. You child is going to see what foods you eat, and when you are more likely to eat them, and your child is going to build their own habits from those habits he or she sees you following. If you eat breakfast on the go, all the time, your child will feel this is normal and ok, but you should be sitting down to a breakfast every morning for good nutrition basics. Even if you are eating a bowl of cereal or you are enjoying a glass of juice, taking five minutes will encourage better eating habits.

Nutrition for your child’s health

Healthy beginnings start with fruits, vegetables and good portions of meats. The food pyramid is going to be important in the early stages of life so that your child will learn to eat many types of foods, and not only the foods they like the taste and looks of. Giving your child many options in life will help them pick foods that are better for them in the long run. Healthy children are not going to eat burgers and fries for every meal, but they will have a well-rounded life with nutrition builders such as fruits, vegetables, meat, and variations of these builders.

Teaching good habits for your child’s nutrition awareness will start with reading labels. Learn about what preservatives and additives are in some of the foods you are eating, and then talk about these with your child as they grow. Include foods that are all natural, or that contain very little preservatives for a solid start in their understanding of nutrition.

Be patient

Don’t try to force your children to eat if they refuse to finish their meal. By creating drama in the kitchen, you set a bad tone for the future. Kids will automatically think of mealtime as a negative experience and will only become more reluctant when it comes to eating. Be persistent by offering a variety of foods along with those you know they like. As new foods become familiar, your children will be more likely to try them.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6868076

By Dhames Wary Karthiges

What to do when your kids cry?

Crying is a physiological process in the life of a baby.All normal babies cry to communicate with others.Sine they can’t express their feelings in words crying is the only way for communication. If any uncomfortable feeling comes they simply cry.Normally babies cry in situations like hunger,wetting,too heat or cold,tight cloths pain etc  Some kids need the presence of somebody otherwise will cry simply.Crying without any cause is habitual in some babies. Eventhough crying is considered as normal it may worry the family members.Since the reasons for crying ranges from simple causes to serious causes it should not be ignored and hence exact cause has to be identified and managed accordingly.

Newborn child, seconds after birth. The umbili...

Newborn child, seconds after birth. The umbilical cord has not yet been cut. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The following are some points which should be considered while dealing with a crying baby:

1- It is dangerous to shake the baby vigorously

2- Tight cloaths can cause irritation hence it should be removed

3- If the room is hot put the fan and open the windows

4- If the nappy is wet remove it and after cleaning the parts make it dry with a soft towel

5- Pat her back or stroke her head slowly and let her here your soothing sound

6- Give breast milk and make her quiet

7- If the climate is cold cover her in soft towel

8- Rock her gently in your arms and walk slowly in the room

9- Take a music making doll and let her listen

10- Try a pacifier or help her for thumb sucking

11- If no response change her position

12- Walk outdoors with her

13- Put her on the cradle and rock gently

14- If no response ask somebody to carry the baby

Even after all these steps the baby goes on crying see for the following signs. (Probable cause is given after every sign)

1- Press her abdomen gently,she may twist or resist you:—Colic

2- Pull her ear gently she may become worse or push your hands away:—Earache.

3- Feel her temperature with the back of your hands:–Fever due to any infection.

4 Examine the skin from head to foot:–Eruptive disease, nappy rash, measles, vesicles, allergy etc.

5- See the nose for any discharge:–Coryza

6- Move the head gently to feel any neck stiffness:–Meningitis,head injury etc.

7- Keep your ear near her chest to hear any rattling sound:–Increased mucus in wind pipes
(pneumonia, bronchiolitis, asthamatic bronchitis etc.)

8- Examine the anal orifice:–Anal erosion,rectal polyp,crawling of worms

9- Examine the genitalia:–Any discharge or erosion

10- In male baby see the testicles which may be swollen or tender:–Orchitis,torsion of testes

11- Also notice the body movements and see for any convulsions,rigors,vomiting,cough, labored breathing etc.

If you see the above signs or any other abnormal signs consult your doctor for proper treatment

Tips For The Safety Of Kids

What we should do?

1- Always keep the baby neat and clean

2- Cut the nails properly with utmost care

3- Wet nappy should be removed and parts should be cleaned with soap

4- Take care of the genitals because fungal infection is common in that area. Parts should be kept dry

5- Care of the scalp is very important. Fungal infections, dermatitis etc. can be prevented by proper cleaning

6- Tight dress can cause irritation, hence dress should be loose and should allow entry of air

7- Room should have sufficient light and ventilation. It should be free from dust and insects

8- Separate bed preferably water proof is needed for kids .It should be arranged near mother’s bed

9- Always keep some music making toys near the baby

10- While carrying the baby support the head with hand. Since the neck muscles are weak sudden fall of head can be dangerous

11- Mothers milk is the best nutrition for the baby, it also gives emotional attachment. Breast milk should be given as per the babies need preferably in mother sitting position. Proper cleaning of nipple is also necessary. Mother should take good nutritious diet throughout lactating period

12- If there is some contraindication for breast feeding, cow’s milk can be given. Feeding bottle should be cleaned with warm water and should be kept dry till next use

13- Cow’s milk should be boiled and cooled. Some diseases like bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis etc. spread through raw milk

14- Some children are allergic to some substances like food, milk, dress, cosmetics etc. Try to find out the material causing allergy and avoid such things

15- Mosquito nets should be used regularly. Diseases like malaria, dengue, filariasis, yellow fever and etc. spread through mosquito bites. Mosquito bite can also produce skin eruptions with some allergic reactions. It also disturbs sound sleep

16- A calm atmosphere should be maintained for a good sleep. Compared to adults infants need more sleep. It is said that growth hormone secretion is activated during sleep

17- Growth development, behavioral development, motor development, personal social development, language development etc. should be noted down in relation to age. However parents need not be over anxious because slight variations are seen from individual to individual

18- Assessment of growth by measuring height and weight is necessary

19- In the early months of life infant may defecate after every feed. Proper toilet training should be given when the infant grows. The infant can be placed on the toilet seat by the age of ten months

20- The toilet seat (potty seat) should be cleaned with antiseptic liquid before and after use. It should not be shared by other children

21- If the baby shows some signs of distress like excessive crying, convulsions, fever with rigor, stiffness of neck, frequent vomiting and diarrhea, bluish discoloration of the body, difficult breathing with grunting, etc. pay attention and consult your doctor

22- A first aid box should be kept in the room, which should contain sterile cotton, dressing materials, antiseptic lotion and ointment and forceps. Separate book should be maintained to note down the phone numbers of doctors, ambulance, police etc.

23- Child’s medicines should be kept in separate box. Information regarding dose and mode of administration should be written in a paper and affixed on the box

24- While driving keep the baby in separate seat belt

25- When you are going out with the baby keep an identity card with your phone number and address inside his small pocket

26- When the infant starts walking always accompany him to prevent a fall and injuries thereby

27- In emergencies take the first aid measures and take the victim to nearby hospital

English: Sleeping baby boy

English: Sleeping baby boy (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Choking: The baby may swallow some solid objects and cause obstruction. Immediately make the baby to lie on the abdomen in head low position and press the abdomen backwards and towards the chest. Stroking the upper back is also useful. If no result call a trained person to take the material with the help of forceps.

Accidental poisoning: Try to takeout the poisonous substance and induce vomiting (except kerosine & acids). Wash the body with water to reduce absorption through skin. Identify the poison and take the victim to the hospital.

Burns: First of all remove the source of heat and put clean cold water. Burned clothes should not be removed immediately. Cover the wound with sterile cotton and take to nearby hospital.

Wounds: Clean the wound with clean water and stop the bleeding by compressing, raising the wound above the level of heart or use a tourniquet to compress blood vessels. Then dress the wound with sterile cotton and bandage and consult a doctor.

Drowning in bath tub:Take the baby immediately and keep in head low position, press the abdomen gently or give a mouth to mouth sucking till the air way is clear. Give mouth to mouth breathing and cardiac massage and take the victim to the hospital.

Electric shock:Stop the source of current. Then observe the victim, if no breathing give mouth to mouth breath along with cardiac massage and take to the hospital.

28- And the last but not the least, give your child maximum care, love and support to make him healthy and happy for ever.

What we should not do?

1- Never shake the baby; it can cause damage to the brain

2- Don’t keep any small articles near the baby

3- Sharp pointed articles like pen, pencil, etc. should not be given to kids

4- Avoid entry of water in to the ear while giving a bath

5- Food should not be given forcibly when the baby is crying or coughing continuously

6- Should not overfeed the baby

7- Articles like mosquito repellents, moth balls, ink, gum, medicines, etc. should be kept away

8- Avoid tight clothing

9- Should not be placed near the edge of the bed

10- Should not give the baby to strangers and avoid close contact with others

11- All electrical instruments should be kept away, and bed should not be arranged near electrical sockets and wires

12- Kitchen is a dangerous place for children. Don’t keep them alone in the kitchen

13- Water level in the bath tub should be minimum and don’t go for any other works (to attend phone call or calling bell etc.) when the baby is in the tub

14- Avoid smoking inside the house

15- Should not allow pet animals to be in very close contact with the kids.(anti rabies injections should be given to pets and cut their nails properly)

16- When the child starts walking should not be kept alone on the upstairs and should not allow them to climb the steps

17- Strong light should be avoided in the room

18- When you are travelling don’t give the food articles given by co passengers

19- Baby should not be allowed to crawl on the soil

20- If you are sick or someone else is sick be away from the kids

21- Don’t take the baby to hospital wards, crowded market places and polluted dusty areas

22- Table lamp should not be kept near the kids, this will attract insects at night and cause problems

23- Others medicine should not be given to the children

24- Medicine which has crossed the expiry date should not be used

Stomach And Bowel Disorders Among Infants

Disorder of the stomach and bowels is one of the most fruitful sources of the diseases of infancy. Only prevent their derangement, and, all things being equal, the infant will be healthy and flourish, and need not the aid of physic or physicians.

DHA Molecule

DHA Molecule (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

There are many causes which may give rise to these affections; many of them appertain to the mother’s system, some to that of the infant. All are capable, to a great extent, of being prevented or remedied. It is, therefore, most important that a mother should not be ignorant or misinformed upon this subject. It is the prevention of these affections, however, that will be principally dwelt upon here; for let the mother ever bear in mind, and act upon the principle, that the prevention of disease alone belongs to her; the cure to the physician. For the sake of clearness and reference, these disorders will be spoken of as they occur:

To the infant at the breast:

The infant’s stomach and bowels may become deranged from the breast-milk becoming unwholesome. This may arise from the parent getting out of health, a circumstance which will be so manifest to herself, and to those more immediately interested in her welfare, that it is only necessary just to allude to it here. Suffice it to say, that there are many causes of a general kind to which it may owe its origin; but that the most frequent is undue lactation, and the effects both upon mother and child fully dwelt upon.

Anxiety of mind in the mother will cause her milk to be unhealthy in its character, and deficient in quantity, giving rise to flatulence, griping, and sometimes even convulsions in the infant. A fit of passion in the nurse will frequently be followed by a fit of bowel complain in the child. These causes of course are temporary, and when removed the milk becomes a healthy and sufficient for the child as before.

Sudden and great mental disturbance, however, will occasionally drive away the milk altogether, and in a few hours. A Mrs. S., aet. 29, a fine healthy woman, of a blonde complexion, was confined of a boy. She had a good time, and a plentiful supply of milk for the child, which she continued to suckle till the following January, a period of three months, when her milk suddenly disappeared. This circumstance puzzled the medical attendant, for he could not trace it to any physical ailment; but the milk never returned, and a wet-nurse became necessary. In the following spring the husband of this lady failed, an adversity which had been impending since the date when the breast-milk disappeared, upon which day the deranged state of the husband’s affairs was made known to the wife, a fact which at once explained the mysterious disappearance of the milk.

Unwholesome articles of diet will affect the mother’s milk, and derange the infant’s bowels. Once, I was called to see an infant at the breast with diarrhoea. The remedial measures had but little effect so long as the infant was allowed the breast-milk; but this being discontinued, and arrow-root made with water only allowed, the complaint was quickly put a stop to. Believing that the mother’s milk was impaired from some accidental cause which might now be passed, the infant was again allowed the breast. In less than four-and-twenty hours, however, the diarrhoea returned. The mother being a very healthy woman, it was suspected that some unwholesome article in her diet might be the cause. The regimen was accordingly carefully inquired into, when it appeared that porter from a neighbouring publican’s had been substituted for their own for some little time past. This proved to be bad, throwing down, when left to stand a few hours, a considerable sediment; it was discontinued; good sound ale taken instead; the infant again put to the breast, upon the milk of which it flourished, and never had another attack.

In the same way aperient medicine, taken by the mother, will act on the child’s bowels, through the effect which it produces upon her milk. This, however, is not the case with all kinds of purgative medicine, nor does the same purgative produce a like effect upon all children. It is well, therefore, for a parent to notice what aperient acts thus through her system upon that of her child, and what does not, and when an aperient becomes necessary for herself, unless she desire that the infant’s bowels be moved, to avoid the latter; if otherwise, she may take the former with good effect.

Again; the return of the monthly periods whilst the mother is a nurse always affects the properties of the milk, more or less, deranging the stomach and bowels of the infant. It will thus frequently happen, that a few days before the mother is going to be unwell, the infant will become fretful and uneasy; its stomach will throw up the milk, and its motions will be frequent, watery, and greenish. And then, when the period is fully over, the milk will cease to purge. It is principally in the early months, however, that the infant seems to be affected by this circumstance; for it will be generally found that although the milk is certainly impaired by it, being less abundant and nutritious, still, after the third or fourth month it ceases to affect the infant. Is then a mother, because her monthly periods return after her delivery, to give up nursing? Certainly not, unless the infant’s health is seriously affected by it; for she will generally find that, as the periods come round, by keeping the infant pretty much from the breast, during its continuance, and feeding him upon artificial food, she will prevent disorder of the child’s health, and be able in the intervals to nurse her infant with advantage. It must be added, however, that a wet- nurse is to be resorted to rather than any risk incurred of injuring the child’s health; and that, in every case, partial feeding will be necessary at a much earlier period than when a mother is not thus affected.

The milk may also be rendered less nutritive, and diminished in quantity, by the mother again becoming pregnant. In this case, however, the parent’s health will chiefly suffer, if she persevere in nursing; this, however, will again act prejudicially to the child. It will be wise, therefore, if pregnancy should occur, and the milk disagree with the infant, to resign the duties of a nurse, and to put the child upon a suitable artificial diet.

The infant that is constantly at the breast will always be suffering, more or less, from flatulence, griping, looseness of the bowels, and vomiting. This is caused by a sufficient interval not being allowed between the meals for digestion. The milk, therefore, passes on from the stomach into the bowels undigested, and the effects just alluded to follow. Time must not only be given for the proper digestion of the milk, but the stomach itself must be allowed a season of repose. This evil, then, must be avoided most carefully by the mother strictly adhering to those rules for nursing.

The bowels of the infant at the breast, as well as after it is weaned, are generally affected by teething. And it is fortunate that this is the case, for it prevents more serious affections. Indeed, the diarrhoea that occurs during dentition, except it be violent, must not be subdued; if, however, this is the case, attention must be paid to it. It will generally be found to be accompanied by a swollen gum; the freely lancing of which will sometimes alone put a stop to the looseness: further medical aid may, however, be necessary.

At the period of weaning:

There is great susceptibility to derangements of the stomach and bowels of the child at the period when weaning ordinarily takes place, so that great care and judgment must be exercised in effecting this object. Usually, however, the bowels are deranged during this process from one of these causes; from weaning too early, from effecting it too suddenly and abruptly, or from over-feeding and the use of improper and unsuitable food. There is another cause which also may give rise to diarrhoea at this time, independently of weaning, viz. the irritation of difficult teething.

The substitution of artificial food for the breast-milk of the mother, at a period when the digestive organs of the infant are too delicate for this change, is a frequent source of the affections now under consideration.

The attempt to wean a delicate child, for instance, when only six months old, will inevitably be followed by disorder of the stomach and bowels. Unless, therefore, a mother is obliged to resort to this measure, from becoming pregnant, or any other unavoidable cause, if she consult the welfare of her child, she will not give up nursing at this early period.

Depriving the child at once of the breast, and substituting artificial food, however proper under due regulations such food may be, will invariably cause bowel complaints. Certain rules and regulations must be adopted to effect weaning safely, the details of which are given elsewhere.

If too large a quantity of food is given at each meal, or the meals are too frequently repeated, in both instances the stomach will become oppressed, wearied, and deranged; part of the food, perhaps, thrown up by vomiting, whilst the remainder, not having undergone the digestive process, will pass on into the bowels, irritate its delicate lining membrane, and produce flatulence, with griping, purging, and perhaps convulsions.

Then, again, improper and unsuitable food will be followed by precisely the same effects; and unless a judicious alteration be quickly made, remedies will not only have no influence over the disease, but the cause being continued, the disease will become most seriously aggravated.

It is, therefore, of the first importance to the well-doing of the child, that at this period, when the mother is about to substitute an artificial food for that of her own breast, she should first ascertain what kind of food suits the child best, and then the precise quantity which nature demands. Many cases might be cited, where children have never had a prescription written for them, simply because, these points having been attended to, their diet has been managed with judgment and care; whilst, on the other hand, others might be referred to, whose life has been hazarded, and all but lost, simply from injudicious dietetic management. Over-feeding, and improper articles of food, are more frequently productive, in their result, of anxious hours and distressing scenes to the parent, and of danger and loss of life to the child, than almost any other causes.

The irritation caused by difficult teething may give rise to diarrhoea at the period when the infant is weaned, independently of the weaning itself. Such disorder of the bowels, if it manifestly occur from this cause, is a favourable circumstance, and should not be interfered with, unless indeed the attack be severe and aggravated, when medical aid becomes necessary. Slight diarrhoea then, during weaning, when it is fairly traceable to the cutting of a tooth (the heated and inflamed state of the gum will at once point to this as the source of the derangement), is of no consequence, but it must not be mistaken for disorder arising from other causes. Lancing the gum will at once, then, remove the cause, and generally cure the bowel complaint.

Exposure Of Infants To Open Air

The respiration of a pure air is at all times, and under all circumstances, indispensable to the health of the infant. The nursery therefore should be large, well ventilated, in an elevated part of the house, and so situated as to admit a free supply both of air and light. For the same reasons, the room in which the infant sleeps should be large, and the air frequently renewed; for nothing is so prejudicial to its health as sleeping in an impure and heated atmosphere. The practice, therefore, of drawing thick curtains closely round the bed is highly pernicious; they only answer a useful purpose when they defend the infant from any draught of cold air.

The proper time for taking the infant into the open air must, of course, be determined by the season of the year, and the state of the weather. “A delicate infant born late in the autumn will not generally derive advantage from being carried into the open air, in this climate, till the succeeding spring; and if the rooms in which he is kept are large, often changed, and well ventilated, he will not suffer from the confinement, while he will, most probably, escape catarrhal affections, which are so often the consequence of the injudicious exposure of infants to a cold and humid atmosphere.” If, however, the child is strong and healthy, no opportunity should be lost of taking it into the open air at stated periods, experience daily proving that it has the most invigorating and vivifying influence upon the system. Regard, however, must always be had to the state of the weather; and to a damp condition of the atmosphere the infant should never be exposed, as it is one of the most powerful exciting causes of consumptive disease. The nurse-maid, too, should not be allowed to loiter and linger about, thus exposing the infant unnecessarily, and for an undue length of time; this is generally the source of all the evils which accrue from taking the babe into the open air.

Deficiency of Milk

A baby having milk from a bottle.

A baby having milk from a bottle. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Deficiency of milk may exist even at a very early period after delivery, and yet be removed. This, however, is not to be accomplished by the means too frequently resorted to; for it is the custom with many, two or three weeks after their confinement, if the supply of nourishment for the infant is scanty, to partake largely of malt liquor for its increase. Sooner or later this will be found injurious to the constitution of the mother: but how, then, is this deficiency to be obviated? Let the nurse keep but in good health, and this point gained, the milk, both as to quantity and quality, will be as ample, nutritious, and good, as can be produced by the individual.

I would recommend a plain, generous, and nutritious diet; not one description of food exclusively, but, as is natural, a wholesome, mixed, animal, and vegetable diet, with or without wine or malt liquor, according to former habit; and, occasionally, where malt liquor has never been previously taken, a pint of good sound ale may be taken daily with advantage, if it agree with the stomach. Regular exercise in the open air is of the greatest importance, as it has an extraordinary influence in promoting the secretion of healthy milk. Early after leaving the lying-in room, carriage exercise, where it can be obtained, is to be preferred, to be exchanged, in a week or so, for horse exercise, or the daily walk. The tepid, or cold salt-water shower bath, should be used every morning; but if it cannot be borne, sponging the body with salt-water must be substituted.

By adopting with perseverance the foregoing plan, a breast of milk will be obtained as ample in quantity, and good in quality, as the constitution of the parent can produce, as the following case proves:

I attended a lady twenty-four years of age, a delicate, but healthy woman, in her first confinement. The labour was good. Every thing went on well for the first week, except that, although the breasts became enlarged, and promised a good supply of nourishment for the infant, at its close there was merely a little oozing from the nipple. During the next fortnight a slight, but very gradual increase in quantity took place, so that a dessert spoonful only was obtained about the middle of this period, and perhaps double this quantity at its expiration. In the mean time the child was necessarily fed upon an artificial diet, and as a consequence its bowels became deranged, and a severe diarrhoea followed.

For three or four days it was a question whether the little one would live, for so greatly had it been reduced by the looseness of the bowels that it had not strength to grasp the nipple of its nurse; the milk, therefore, was obliged to be drawn, and the child fed with it from a spoon. After the lapse of a few days, however, it could obtain the breast-milk for itself; and, to make short of the case, during the same month, the mother and child returned home, the former having a very fair proportion of healthy milk in her bosom, and the child perfectly recovered and evidently thriving fast upon it.

Where, however, there has been an early deficiency in the supply of nourishment, it will most frequently happen that, before the sixth or seventh month, the infant demands will be greater than the mother can meet. The deficiency must be made up by artificial food, which must be of a kind generally employed before the sixth month, and given through the bottle.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/1492834

By Iwan K P

Crying Baby – Reasons

Introduction:

Crying is a normal event in the lives of all babies.When a baby comes out of the woomb the first thing to do is crying.By the first cry he will take some air in to the lungs for the first time in their life.After delivery if the baby doesnot cry then it should be initiated by slightly pinching or gently strocking the feet.From this it is clear that the healthy baby should cry and it is a normal physiological event ,still some times it can upset the mother or family members.

We all know that a baby can’t tell his needs or troubles in words. The only way for him to communicate with others is by crying.Babies show some other signs like feet kicking,hand waving and head turning ect.But the best way to take the attention of others is by crying.

A toddler girl crying

A toddler girl crying (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Excessive crying may not have a firm definition because the crying habit changes from baby to baby and some babies can be calmed easily but some are difficult to sooth.If crying is distressing for the mother and home nurse it can be called excessive.Many a times baby become quiet by giving breast milk or by carrying with a gentle rocking.Sudden onset of excessive crying means baby is distressed and needs attention.The causes of crying extends from simple reasons to life threatening conditions.Hence crying of a baby should not be ignored.
Most of the time it is difficult to find the cause of the cry .Common causes are discussed here for awareness.

Common reasons for crying:

1- Hunger

A hungry baby will cry till he gets the milk. Here the old saying comes true’crying baby gets the milk’.

2- Wetting

Urination and defecation causes some discomfort and results in crying till his parts are cleaned and made dry .

3- Company

Majority of the kids need somebody near. If they feel lonely they cry.When their favourite doll slips away from the grip they cry for help.

4- Tired

When the baby is tired after a journey and unable to sleep just cry simply.They feel tired in uncomfortable sourroundings and due to unhealthy climate.

5- Heat & cold

If they feel too hot or too cold they become restless and cry. Child is comfortable in a room with good ventilation.

6- Tight cloathing

Tight cloaths especially during warm climate is intolerable for kids.Tight elastic of the the dress can also produce soreness in the hip region.

7- Dark room

When the baby wakes up from sleep he needs some dim light.If there is darkness he will disturb the sleep of parents by crying.Ofcourse he will be irritated by strong light resulting in cry.

8- Mosquito

Yes,these creatures disturb the sleep by their blood sucking and make the baby to cry.

9- Nasal blocking

Child may not be able to sleep when there is a cold and go on crying till the passage is open.

10- Phlegm in throat

This also causes difficult breathing resulting in cry.Often a typical sound can be heard with each breath.

11- General aching

Generalised body ache with restlessness is seen in flu and prodromal stages of some infectious diseases can result in continuous cry.

12- Habitual cry

Some babies cry without any real cause ending the parents in agony.Many a times doctor is called for help.

13- Nappy rash

If a tight and wet nappy is kept for a long time results in this conditon.
Rash can also be due to some allergic reaction to the elastic material of the nappy. When the rash appears it causes soreness and baby become sleepless and cry. All other skin lesions like eczema,ecthyma ,candidiasis ect also causes same problems.

14- Earache

Ear infection is common in wet climate.The infection may spread from the throat.Ear infection can result in rupture of ear drum causing discharge of pus.Eareache usually becomes worse at night when lying down.Child will become restless with cry and may not allow you to touch the ear.Some children with earache rub the affected ear frequently.

15- Colic

When the baby cry continuously most of us diagnose it as colic.This roblem is still a topic for debate because exact cause for colic is not known and diagnosis is also difficult to confirm.Colic may be associated with rumbling and distention of abdomen.Child often feels better when lying on abdomen.Some children may not allow you to touch the abdomen.If the child cries continuously doctors help is needed.

16- Infections

All infections causes some kind of pain or irritation resulting in cry.Infection may be anywhere in the body.Usually it is associated with fever, redness and swelling.

17- Reactions to certain food

It is said that one man’s food is another man’s poison. Some food articles can produce some allergic reactions.Allergy is manifested in the form of redness, breathlessness,gastric symptons and continuous cry.

18- Hard stools

Constipated babies with hard stools may cry when they get the urge for stool.Some children hesitate to pass stool because of pain .

19- Gastro esophagial reflex

Here baby cries with spilling of food after feeding.If this continues it may be due to gastroesophageal reflex.This is due to failure of the lower part of esophagus to close after food causing regurgitation from the stomach.It is difficult to diagnose this condition and can be confirmed by giving antireflex medicines.

20- Dentition

During dentition child becomes restless with crying.Often associated with gastric troubles and diarrhoea.

Some rare reasons:

1- Bowel obstruction

Bowel obstruction is associated with severe pain and vomiting.Abdomen is distended with rumbling sound.Baby is constipated with absence of flatus.

2- Septicemia

Invasion of pathogenic micro organisms in to the blood is called septicemia.Fever is associated with this condition.

3- Torsion of testes in male kids

When a male baby cries continuously his scrotum should be examined.Torsion of the testes produce severe pain which will be worse by touching the affected testes.When the testes is pressed upwards pain is releived.If this is not treated properly it can damage the affected testes due to lack of blood supply.

4- Meningitis

Initially there may not be fever,hence crying baby with alternate vacant stare and irritability should not be ignored.Fontanel is bulging. Neck rigidity and seizures may appear later.
5- Retention of urine

Children with retention of urine will have agonising pain making them restless.

6- Major injuries

Major injury to any parts of the body causes pain.Occasionally children will fall while arrying and results in head injury.Head injury is associated with reflex vomiting and convulsions.

Artificial Diet For Infants

A diet rich in soy and whey protein, found in ...

A diet rich in soy and whey protein, found in products such as soy milk and low-fat yogurt, has been shown to reduce breast cancer incidence in rats. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It should be as like the breast-milk as possible. This is obtained by a mixture of cow’s milk, water, and sugar, in the following proportions.

Fresh cow’s milk, two thirds; Boiling water, or thin barley water, one third; Loaf sugar, a sufficient quantity to sweeten.

This is the best diet that can be used for the first six months, after which some farinaceous food may be combined.

In early infancy, mothers are too much in the habit of giving thick gruel, panada, biscuit-powder, and such matters, thinking that a diet of a lighter kind will not nourish. This is a mistake; for these preparations are much too solid; they overload the stomach, and cause indigestion, flatulence, and griping. These create a necessity for purgative medicines and carminatives, which again weaken digestion, and, by unnatural irritation, perpetuate the evils which render them necessary. Thus many infants are kept in a continual round of repletion, indigestion, and purging, with the administration of cordials and narcotics, who, if their diet were in quantity and quality suited to their digestive powers, would need no aid from physic or physicians.

In preparing this diet, it is highly important to obtain pure milk, not previously skimmed, or mixed with water; and in warm weather just taken from the cow. It should not be mixed with the water or sugar until wanted, and not more made than will be taken by the child at the time, for it must be prepared fresh at every meal. It is best not to heat the milk over the fire, but let the water be in a boiling state when mixed with it, and thus given to the infant tepid or lukewarm.

As the infant advances in age, the proportion of milk may be gradually increased; this is necessary after the second month, when three parts of milk to one of water may be allowed. But there must be no change in the kind of diet if the health of the child is good, and its appearance perceptibly improving. Nothing is more absurd than the notion, that in early life children require a variety of food; only one kind of food is prepared by nature, and it is impossible to transgress this law without marked injury.

There are two ways by the spoon, and by the nursing-bottle. The first ought never to be employed at this period, inasmuch as the power of digestion in infants is very weak, and their food is designed by nature to be taken very slowly into the stomach, being procured from the breast by the act of sucking, in which act a great quantity of saliva is secreted, and being poured into the mouth, mixes with the milk, and is swallowed with it. This process of nature, then, should be emulated as far as possible; and food (for this purpose) should be imbibed by suction from a nursing-bottle: it is thus obtained slowly, and the suction employed secures the mixture of a due quantity of saliva, which has a highly important influence on digestion. Whatever kind of bottle or teat is used, however, it must never be forgotten that cleanliness is absolutely essential to the success of this plan of rearing children.

Te quantity of food to be given at each meal ust be regulated by the age of the child, and its digestive power. A little experience will soon enable a careful and observing mother to determine this point. As the child grows older the quantity of course must be increased.

The chief error in rearing the young is overfeeding; and a most serious one it is; but which may be easily avoided by the parent pursuing a systematic plan with regard to the hours of feeding, and then only yielding to the indications of appetite, and administering the food slowly, in small quantities at a time. This is the only way effectually to prevent indigestion, and bowel complaints, and the irritable condition of the nervous system, so common in infancy, and secure to the infant healthy nutrition, and consequent strength of constitution. As has been well observed, “Nature never intended the infant’s stomach to be converted into a receptacle for laxatives, carminatives, antacids, stimulants, and astringents; and when these become necessary, we may rest assured that there is something faulty in our management, however perfect it may seem to ourselves.”

The frequency of giving food must be determined, as a general rule, by allowing such an interval between each meal as will insure the digestion of the previous quantity; and this may be fixed at about every three or four hours. If this rule be departed from, and the child receives a fresh supply of food every hour or so, time will not be given for the digestion of the previous quantity, and as a consequence of this process being interrupted, the food passing on into the bowel undigested, will there ferment and become sour, will inevitably produce cholic and purging, and in no way contribute to the nourishment of the child.

The posture of the child when fed:- It is important to attend to this. It must not receive its meals lying; the head should be raised on the nurse’s arm, the most natural position, and one in which there will be no danger of the food going the wrong way, as it is called. After each meal the little one should be put into its cot, or repose on its mother’s knee, for at least half an hour. This is essential for the process of digestion, as exercise is important at other times for the promotion of health.

As soon as the child has got any teeth, and about this period one or two will make their appearance, solid farinaceous matter boiled in water, beaten through a sieve, and mixed with a small quantity of milk, may be employed. Or tops and bottoms, steeped in hot water, with the addition of fresh milk and loaf sugar to sweeten. And the child may now, for the first time, be fed with a spoon.

When one or two of the large grinding teeth have appeared, the same food may be continued, but need not be passed through a sieve. Beef tea and chicken broth may occasionally be added; and, as an introduction to the use of a more completely animal diet, a portion, now and then, of a soft boiled egg; by and by a small bread pudding, made with one egg in it, may be taken as the dinner meal.

Nothing is more common than for parents during this period to give their children animal food. This is a great error. “To feed an infant with animal food before it has teeth proper for masticating it, shows a total disregard to the plain indications of nature, in withholding such teeth till the system requires their assistance to masticate solid food. And the method of grating and pounding meat, as a substitute for chewing, may be well suited to the toothless octogenarian, whose stomach is capable of digesting it; but the stomach of a young child is not adapted to the digestion of such food, and will be disordered by it.

It cannot reasonably be maintained that a child’s mouth without teeth, and that of an adult, furnished with the teeth of carnivorous and graminivorous animals, are designed by the Creator for the same sort of food. If the mastication of solid food, whether animal or vegetable, and a due admixture of saliva, be necessary for digestion, then solid food cannot be proper, when there is no power of mastication. If it is swallowed in large masses it cannot be masticated at all, and will have but a small chance of being digested; and in an undigested state it will prove injurious to the stomach and to the other organs concerned in digestion, by forming unnatural compounds. The practice of giving solid food to a toothless child, is not less absurd, than to expect corn to be ground where there is no apparatus for grinding it. That which would be considered as an evidence of idiotism or insanity in the last instance, is defended and practised in the former. If, on the other hand, to obviate this evil, the solid matter, whether animal or vegetable, be previously broken into small masses, the infant will instantly swallow it, but it will be unmixed with saliva. Yet in every day’s observation it will be seen, that children are so fed in their most tender age; and it is not wonderful that present evils are by this means produced, and the foundation laid for future disease.”

The diet pointed out, then, is to be continued until the second year. Great care, however, is necessary in its management; for this period of infancy is ushered in by the process of teething, which is commonly connected with more or less of disorder of the system. Any error, therefore, in diet or regimen is now to be most carefully avoided. ‘Tis true that the infant, who is of a sound and healthy constitution, in whom, therefore, the powers of life are energetic, and who up to this time has been nursed upon the breast of its parent, and now commences an artificial diet for the first time, disorder is scarcely perceptible, unless from the operation of very efficient causes. Not so, however, with the child who from the first hour of its birth has been nourished upon artificial food. Teething under such circumstances is always attended with more or less of disturbance of the frame, and disease of the most dangerous character but too frequently ensues. It is at this age, too, that all infectious and eruptive fevers are most prevalent; worms often begin to form, and diarrhoea, thrush, rickets, cutaneous eruptions, etc. manifest themselves, and the foundation of strumous disease is originated or developed. A judicious management of diet will prevent some of these complaints, and mitigate the violence of others when they occur.

Article Source: http://www.articlecity.com/articles/family/article_2753.shtml

 by Jamulco Setiawan