Tag Archives: Conditions and Diseases

Treating Hemorrhoid in Children

Hemorrhoid in children is less common in occurrence than in adults. Hemorrhoids are structures found in the anal canal that aid in controlling stool passage. The healthy hemorrhoids become painful when they become inflamed or swollen. There are two types of pathological hemorrhoids- internal and external. The internal type are painless but are accompanied with rectal bleeding. On the other hand, the external types are those that are very painful.

Hemorrhoids are caused by several factors. One of the causes is poor diet. Individuals who suffer with it may lack in certain vitamins and nutrients. Another cause can be frequent and prolonged sitting on hard surfaces. Kids should be allowed to move around every once in a while especially during class. Another probable cause can be constipation. As for the symptoms, they are very similar to the symptoms of hemorrhoids in adults.

There are a lot of possible treatments for hemorrhoid in children. You can opt for surgeries, but for younger individuals it is recommended to stick with natural remedies to treat it.

One treatment for hemorrhoids is to change your child’s diet. It was aforementioned that poor diet can be the culprit in causing it. A change in the diet can greatly help in the treatment process.

Berries, like black and red currant, are fruits that can treat constipation and the said disease. These fruits are loaded with Vitamin C. It also contains an antioxidant called Rutin. This antioxidant has been proven to aid in treating hemorrhoids. Rutin is capable of strengthening the capillaries and can also improve blood circulation. Instead of just feeding kids the berries, you can make them into a juice to make it appealing and tastier to your children.

Aside from berries, you can feed your children with different spices found in your kitchen. Garlic, onion and ginger are some of the spices you can use for treatment. These spices contain fibrin, a fibrous protein that plays an important role in blood clotting. Fibrin helps in curing the tissues around the anal and rectal canal.

Nuts are also effective as a treatment/remedy. Nuts like sunflower seeds, almonds, cashews, pistachios, prunes and dried apricots can help in the treatment. Aside from that, it is also recommended to eat food with high levels of Omega-3. Studies have shown that aside from being good for the heart, it can improve blood circulation. It also has anti-inflammatory properties. Lastly, feed your child with foods high in fiber. You can feed your child baked and mashed potatoes. Children will have an easy time eating baked potatoes.

Hemorrhoids in children is rather uncommon but not impossible. It is then of utmost importance to take care of your children. Feed him/her with the right kinds of food in the right amounts. Unlike in adults, hemorrhoids found in children can resolve on their own overtime. It is often advised to settle for natural and home remedies instead of turning to medications and surgeries. Take note of these tips to treat your child.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/7215291

By William M Mason

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Bizarre Trends in Medicine for Baby Boomers

I love to talk about longevity. I think it’s very fascinating to think about and crucial for me to help people plan for. For ages. humans have scrambled to avert their own mortality. Whether it was the Fountain of Youth or the Holy Grail people have sacrificed their lives to extend them.

If you asked your grandparents how long they think they would live they may have guessed around 60-70. If you asked your parents the same question they may have said 70-80. If I asked you, the answer would probably be around 80-90, but with a stronger feeling of uncertainty that it could be longer. More than ever we’re seeing the oldest among us live to incredible ages. Someone living beyond 90 is not terribly uncommon.

My specialty is working with Baby Boomers and when I do financial planning for them I project their financial situation up to age 100 and even then try to plan for a safety net in case they live another 10-20 years (yes, this would be age 120). The math going on in my mind is that let’s say someone is 65. When they turn 85 the year will be 2032.

Question #1: What medical advances have occurred in the last 20 years?

Question #2: Is technological advancement linear or exponential?

Question #3: Is it safe to assume that in the next 20 years we’ll see many wonderful, even bizarre advancements that will be available to you and will prevent you from dying of what people normally die of now?

I love working with an older clientele, but the sad aspect of it is that each year I have several pass away. When I think of what they’ve ultimately died of in the past year they were:

1. Liver cancer

2. Multiple respiratory problems

3. Heart disease/heart attack

4. Advanced dementia

They are all things with many promising cures and treatments on the horizon. Often medical advancements are not outright “cures”, but treatments that keep their disease at bay. In the past 20 years we’ve gotten to the point where if HIV/AIDS is treated and people don’t usually die of it. Breast and prostate cancer have made amazing gains through early detection awareness. Heart disease and blood flow is easily and routinely monitored to catch problems before they happen. However, in the next 20 years here are some things coming down the medical pipeline:

1. Stem cells – Right now scientists can take cells from a patient’s bone marrow and grow: heart ventricles, skin, and a complete bladder.

2. Organ Generation – The team that successfully grew and implanted a bladder is working to grow 20 other organs and tissues. The team expects to be able to create livers, lungs and other complicated digestive organs by around 2016 and hearts by the end of the decade. The implication being a world of replacement organs.

3. Tissue cleansing – Not the type the TV preacher’s talking about. In 2009 scientist took a frog, put it under anesthesia, removed its heart and “rinsed” its cells away until the protein structure of the heart was all that was left, regrew the cells on that structure using the frog’s own stem cells, put it back in him, did froggy CPR and off he hopped with a heart new as the day he was born.

All of these do not involve controversial embryonic stem cells. Which by the way, studies are giving hope that doctors could use umbilical cord blood cells. After a baby is born the parents could donate the placenta and umbilical cord for their stem cells.

While a lot of these things are still in their infancy, the reality is that there are tens of thousands of people walking around right now who have successfully undergone these treatments. It is easy to imagine that 20 years from now, when someone who is 65 today and is 85 then, will have many more medical options available to them that are unimaginable today. But it gets better. These are all solutions coming forth in the next decade. Some ones beyond that are:

1. Perfect DNA replication – When DNA replicates it doesn’t quite go to the end of the strand but stops at the telomere region. The result is that the “daughter” strand is has a shorter telomere region. The cells can only divide a certain number of times until this limit is reached and it results in aging. Also, this mechanism can result in cancer as well. Scientists have recently discovered an enzyme that prevents the telomere region from shortening when DNA duplicates.

2. The blurring of man and machine – Experiments are being done to test how much the human brain and computers can interact. So far, scientists have been able to remotely control a robotic arm just by thinking (the scientist still had both of his arms and this was a third arm to him). The same scientist looked to see if he could understand what a machine was telling him and hooked up a sonar machine to his nervous system and could sense distances and demonstrated it under a blind folded test. He described that with the machine connect this “felt near or far away”. The implications of this are complicated but it suggests that in the future we will have devices available to us that supplement our biology.

3. Nanotechnology – This quickly emerging field has many medical hopes such as reversing Alzheimer’s, reversing aging, very early cancer detection and cell regeneration. The idea is that humans could have microscopic medical machines inside of them that look for problems in their body and fix them physically or inject very specific regions with medicine. This is already happening at some level.

Personally I find all of this fascinating and disturbing. Some of it feels like naïve to even think about as a possibility, but none of it seems biologically impossible. This becomes interesting when it comes to financial planning. Consider this… if someone is 65 now and expects to live 20 years and die at 85, is it not possible that in the next 20 years of medical advances that we’d come up with treatments and detection that will make that person live another 10 years? Now, in that additional 10 years of being on earth, is it not possible that further medical advancements would enable that person to live maybe another 10 years? And in that additional decade… you get the idea.

Right now each year we’re adding about three months to life expectancy and the rate at which we’re adding time to people’s lives is going up. If we get to the point where each year we add another year to life expectancy, it makes the question of “how long should I expect to live?” very ambiguous. When it comes to financial planning for Baby Boomers, this is what is going on in my mind. It’s something that may not happen, but to me it is a risk to be planned for. While the thought of living to 115 is marvelous, it is also a risk that if you retire at 65 it means that your retirement savings needs to last 50 years.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6928936

By Chad R Gordon

Sleep During Infancy And Childhood

During infancy:

For three or four weeks after birth the infant sleeps more or less, day and night, only waking to satisfy the demands of hunger; at the expiration of this time, however, each interval of wakefulness grows longer, so that it sleeps less frequently, but for longer periods at a time.

This disposition to repose in the early weeks of the infant’s life must not be interfered with; but this period having expired, great care is necessary to induce regularity in its hours of sleep, otherwise too much will be taken in the day-time, and restless and disturbed nights will follow. The child should be brought into the habit of sleeping in the middle of the day, before its dinner, and for about two hours, more or less. If put to rest at a later period of the day, it will invariably cause a bad night.

At first the infant should sleep with its parent. The low temperature of its body, and its small power of generating heat, render this necessary. If it should happen, however, that the child has disturbed and restless nights, it must immediately be removed to the bed and care of another female, to be brought to its mother at an early hour in the morning, for the purpose of being nursed. This is necessary for the preservation of the mother’s health, which through sleepless nights would of course be soon deranged, and the infant would also suffer from the influence which such deranged health would have upon the milk.

Happy

Happy (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

When a month or six weeks has elapsed, the child, if healthy, may sleep alone in a cradle or cot, care being taken that it has a sufficiency of clothing, that the room in which it is placed is sufficiently warm, viz. 60 degrees, and the position of the cot itself is not such as to be exposed to currents of cold air. It is essentially necessary to attend to these points, since the faculty of producing heat, and consequently the power of maintaining the temperature, is less during sleep than at any other time, and therefore exposure to cold is especially injurious. It is but too frequently the case that inflammation of some internal organ will occur under such circumstances, without the true source of the disease ever being suspected. Here, however, a frequent error must be guarded against, that of covering up the infant in its cot with too much clothing throwing over its face the muslin handkerchief and, last of all, drawing the drapery of the bed closely together. The object is to keep the infant sufficiently warm with pure air; it therefore ought to have free access to its mouth, and the atmosphere of the whole room should be kept sufficiently warm to allow the child to breathe it freely: in winter, therefore, there must always be a fire in the nursery.

The child up to two years old, at least, should sleep upon a feather bed, for the reasons referred to above. The pillow, however, after the sixth month, should be made of horsehair; for at this time teething commences, and it is highly important that the head should be kept cool.

During childhood:

Up to the third or fourth year the child should be permitted to sleep for an hour or so before its dinner. After this time it may gradually be discontinued; but it must be recollected, that during the whole period of childhood more sleep is required than in adult age. The child, therefore, should be put to rest every evening between seven and eight; and if it be in health it will sleep soundly until the following morning. No definite rule, however, can be laid down in reference to the number of hours of sleep to be allowed; for one will require more or less than another.Regularity as to the time of going to rest is the chief point to attend to; permit nothing to interfere with it, and then only let the child sleep without disturbance, until it awakes of its own accord on the following morning, and it will have had sufficient rest.

The amount of sleep necessary to preserve health varies according to the state of the body, and the habits of the individual. Infants pass much the greater portion of their time in sleep. Children sleep twelve or fourteen hours. The schoolboy generally ten. In youth, a third part of the twenty-four hours is spent in sleep. Whilst, in advanced age, many do not spend more than four, five, or six hours in sleep.

It is a cruel thing for a mother to sacrifice her child’s health that she may indulge her own vanity, and yet how often is this done in reference to sleep. An evening party is to assemble, and the little child is kept up for hours beyond its stated time for retiring to rest, that it may be exhibited, fondled, and admired. Its usual portion of sleep is thus abridged, and, from the previous excitement, what little he does obtain, is broken and unrefreshing, and he rises on the morrow wearied and exhausted.

Once awake, it should not be permitted to lie longer in bed, but should be encouraged to arise immediately. This is the way to bring about the habit of early rising, which prevents many serious evils to which parents are not sufficiently alive, promotes both mental and corporeal health, and of all habits is said to be the most conducive to longevity.

A child should never be suddenly aroused from sleep; it excites the brain, quickens the action of the heart, and, if often repeated, serious consequences would result. The change of sleeping to waking should always be gradual.

The bed on which the child now sleeps should be a mattress: at this age a feather bed is always injurious to children; for the body, sinking deep into the bed, is completely buried in feathers, and the unnatural degree of warmth thus produced relaxes and weakens the system, particularly the skin, and renders the child unusually susceptible to the impressions of cold. Then, instead of the bed being made up in the morning as soon as vacated, and while still saturated with the nocturnal exhalations from the body, the bed-clothes should be thrown over the backs of chairs, the mattress shaken well up, and the window thrown open for several hours, so that the apartment shall be thoroughly ventilated. It is also indispensably requisite not to allow the child to sleep with persons in bad health, or who are far advanced in life; if possible, it should sleep alone.

Mothers’ Role In Combating Diseases Of Children

The especial province of the mother is the prevention of disease, not its cure. When disease attacks the child, the mother has then a part to perform, which it is especially important during the epochs of infancy and childhood should be done well. I refer to those duties which constitute the maternal part of the management of disease.

Medical treatment, for its successful issue, is greatly dependent upon a careful, pains-taking, and judicious maternal superintendence. No medical treatment can avail at any time, if directions be only partially carried out, or be negligently attended to; and will most assuredly fail altogether, if counteracted by the erroneous prejudices of ignorant attendants. But to the affections of infancy and childhood, this remark applies with great force; since, at this period, disease is generally so sudden in its assaults, and rapid in its progress, that unless the measures prescribed are rigidly and promptly administered, their exhibition is soon rendered altogether fruitless.

The amount of suffering, too, may be greatly lessened by the thoughtful and discerning attentions of the mother. The wants and necessities of the young child must be anticipated; the fretfulness produced by disease, soothed by kind and affectionate persuasion; and the possibility of the sick and sensitive child being exposed to harsh and ungentle conduct, carefully provided against.

Again, not only is a firm and strict compliance with medical directions in the administration of remedies, of regimen, and general measures, necessary, but an unbiased, faithful, and full report of symptoms to the physician, when he visits his little patient, is of the first importance. An ignorant servant or nurse, unless great caution be exercised by the medical attendant, may, by an unintentional but erroneous report of symptoms, produce a very wrong impression upon his mind, as to the actual state of the disease. His judgment may, as a consequence, be biased in a wrong direction, and the result prove seriously injurious to the welldoing of the patient. The medical man cannot sit hour after hour watching symptoms; hence the great importance of their being faithfully reported. This can alone be done by the mother, or some person equally competent.

There are other weighty considerations which might be adduced here, proving how much depends upon efficient maternal management in the time of sickness; but they will be severally dwelt upon, when the diseases with which they are more particularly connected are spoken of.

Early Detection Of Disease In The Child

It is highly important that a mother should possess such information as will enable her to detect disease at its first appearance, and thus insure for her child timely medical assistance. This knowledge it will not be difficult for her to obtain. She has only to bear in mind what are the indications which constitute health, and she will at once see that all deviations from it must denote the presence of disorder, if not of actual disease. With these changes she must to a certain extent make herself acquainted.

Signs of health

A 16 month old child with Fifth Disease (aka S...

A 16 month old child with Fifth Disease (aka Slapped face, Parvovirus B19). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The signs of health are to be found, first, in the healthy performance of the various functions of the body; the regular demands made for its supply, neither in excess or deficiency; and a similar regularity in its excretions both in quantity and appearance.If the figure of the healthy infant is observed, something may be learnt from this. There will be perceived such an universal roundness in all parts of the child’s body, that there is no such thing as an angle to be found in the whole figure; whether the limbs are bent or straight, every line forms a portion of a circle. The limbs will feel firm and solid, and unless they are bent, the joints cannot be discovered.

The tongue, even in health, is always white, but it will be free from sores, the skin cool, the eye bright, the complexion clear, the head cool, and the abdomen not projecting too far, the breathing regular, and without effort.

When awake, the infant will be cheerful and sprightly, and, loving to be played with, will often break out into its merry, happy, laugh; whilst, on the other hand, when asleep, it will appear calm, every feature composed, its countenance displaying an expression of happiness, and frequently, perhaps, lit up with a smile.

Just in proportion as the above appearances are present and entire, health may be said to exist; and just in proportion to their partial or total absence disease will have usurped its place.

We will, however, for the sake of clearness examine the signs of disease as they are manifested separately by the countenance, the gestures, in sleep, in the stools, and by the breathing and cough.

Of the countenance

In health the countenance of a thild is expressive of serenity in mind and body; but if the child be unwell, this expression will be changed, and in a manner which, to a certain extent, will indicate what part of the system is at fault.

The brows will be contracted, if there is pain, and its seat is in the head. This is frequently the very first outward sign of any thing being wrong, and will occur at the very onset of disease; if therefore remarked at an early period, and proper remedies used, its notice may prevent one of the most fearful of infantile complaints “Water in the Head.”

If this sign is passed by unheeded, and the above disease be threatened, soon the eyes will become fixed and staring, the head hot, and moved uneasily from side to side upon the pillow, or lie heavily upon the nurse’s arm, the child will start in its sleep, grinding its teeth, and awake alarmed and screaming, its face will be flushed, particularly the cheeks (as if rouged), its hands hot, but feet cold, its bowels obstinately costive, or its motions scanty, dark-coloured, and foul.

If the lips are drawn apart, so as to show the teeth or gums, the seat of the pain is in the belly. This sign, however, will only be present during the actual existence of suffering; if, therefore, there be any doubt whether it exist, press upon the stomach, and watch the eifect on the expression of the countenance.

If the pain arise simply from irritation of the bowels excited from indigestion, it will be temporary, and the sign will go and come just as the spasm may occur, and slight remedial measures will give relief.

If, however, the disease be more serious, and inflammation ensue, this sign will be more constantly present, and soon the countenance will become pale, or sallow and sunken, the child will dread motion, and lie upon its back with the knees bent up to the belly, the tongue will be loaded, and in breathing, while the chest will be seen to heave with more than usual effort, the muscles of the belly will remain perfectly quiescent.

If the nostrils are drawn upwards and in quick motion, pain exists in the chest. This sign, however, will generally be the accompaniment of inflammation of the chest, in which case the countenance will be discoloured, the eyes more or less staring, and the breathing will be difficult and hurried; and if the child’s mode of respiring be watched, the chest will be observed to be unmoved, while the belly quickly heaves with every inspiration.

Convulsions are generally preceded by some changes in the countenance. The upper lip will be drawn up, and is occasionally bluish or livid. Then there may be slight squinting, or a singular rotation of the eye upon its own axis; alternate flushing or paleness of the face; and sudden animation followed by languor.

These signs will sometimes manifest themselves many hours, nay days, before the attack occurs; may be looked upon as premonitory; and if timely noticed, and suitable medical aid resorted to, the occurrence of a fit may be altogether prevented.

The state of the eyes should always be attended to. In health they are clear and bright, but in disease they become dull, and give a heavy appearance to the countenance; though after long continued irritation they will assume a degree of quickness which is very remarkable, and a sort of pearly brightness which is better known from observation than it can be from description.

The direction of the eyes, too, should be regarded, for from this we may learn something. When the infant is first brought to the light, both eyes are scarcely ever directed to the same object: this occurs without any tendency to disease, and merely proves, that regarding one object with both eyes is only an acquired habit. But when the child has come to that age when the eyes are by habit directed to the same object, and afterwards it loses that power, this circumstance alone may be looked upon as a frequent prelude to disease affecting the head.

Of the gestures

The gestures of a healthy child are all easy and natural; but in sickness those deviations occur, which alone will often denote the nature of the disease.

Suppose an infant to have acquired the power to support itself, to hold its head erect; let sickness come, its head will droop immediately, and this power will be lost, only to be regained with the return of health; and during the interval every posture and movement will be that of languor.

The little one that has just taught itself to run alone from chair to chair, having two or three teeth pressing upon and irritating the gums, will for a time be completely taken off its feet, and perhaps lie languidly in its cot, or on its nurse’s arm.

The legs being drawn up to the belly, and accompanied by crying, are proofs of disorder and pain in the bowels. Press upon this part, and your pressure will increase the pain. Look to the secretions from the bowels themselves, and by their unhealthy character your suspicions, in reference to the seat of the disorder, are at once confirmed.

The hands of a child in health are rarely carried above its mouth; but let there be any thing wrong about the head and pain present, and the little one’s hands will be constantly raised to the head and face.

Sudden starting when awake, as also during sleep, though it occur from trifling causes, should never be disregarded. It is frequently connected with approaching disorder of the brain. It may forebode a convulsive fit, and such suspicion is confirmed, if you find the thumb of the child drawn in and firmly pressed upon the palm, with the fingers so compressed upon it, that the hand cannot be forced open without difficulty. The same condition will exist in the toes, but not to so great a degree; there may also be a puffy state of the back of the hands and feet, and both foot and wrist bent downwards.

There are other and milder signs threatening convulsions and connected with gesture, which should be regarded: the head being drawn rigidly backwards, an arm fixed firmly to the side, or near to it, as also one of the legs drawn stifly upwards. These signs, as also those enumerated above, are confirmed beyond all doubt, if there be present certain alterations in the usual habits of the child: if the sleep is disturbed, if there be frequent fits of crying, great peevishness of temper, the countenance alternately flushed and pale, sudden animation followed by as sudden a fit of languor, catchings of the breath followed by a long and deep inspiration, all so many premonitory symptoms of an approaching attack.

Of the sleep

The sleep of the infant in health is quiet, composed, and refreshing. In very early infancy, when not at the breast, it is for the most part asleep in its cot; and although as the months advance it sleeps less, yet when the hour for repose arrives, the child is no sooner laid down to rest, than it drops off into a quiet, peaceful slumber.

Not so, if ill. Frequently it will be unwilling to be put into its cot at all, and the nurse will be obliged to take the infant in her arms; it will then sleep but for a short time, and in a restless and disturbed manner.

If it suffer pain, however slight, the countenance will indicate it; and, as when awake, so now, if there is any thing wrong about the head, the contraction of the eye-brow and grinding of the teeth will appear; if any thing wrong about the belly, the lips will be drawn apart, showing the teeth or gums, and in both instances there will be great restlessness and frequent startings.

Of the stools

In the new-born infant the motions are dark coloured, very much like pitch both in consistence and appearance. The first milk, however, secreted in the mother’s breast, acts as an aperient upon the infant’s bowels, and thus in about four-and-twenty hours it is cleansed away.

From this time, and through the whole of infancy, the stools will be of a lightish yellow colour, the consistence of thin mustard, having little smell, smooth in appearance, and therefore free from lumps or white curded matter, and passed without pain or any considerable quantity of wind. And as long as the child is in health, it will have daily two or three, or even four, of these evacuations. But as it grows older, they will not be quite so frequent; they will become darker in colour, and more solid, though not so much so as in the adult.

Any deviation, then, from the above characters, is of course a sign of something wrong; and as a deranged condition of the bowels is frequently the first indication we have of coming disease, the nurse should daily be directed to watch the evacuations. Their appearance, colour, and the manner in which discharged, are the points principally to be looked to. If the stools have a very curdy appearance, or are too liquid, or green, or dark-coloured, or smell badly, they are unnatural. And in reference to the manner in which they are discharged, it should be borne in mind, that, in a healthy child, the motion is passed with but little wind, and as if squeezed out, but in disease, it will be thrown out with considerable force, which is a sign of great irritation. The number, too, of stools passed within the four-and- twenty hours it is important to note, so that if the child does not have its accustomed relief, (and it must not be forgotten that children, although in perfect health, differ as to the precise number,)

Of the breathing and cough

The breathing of a child in health is formed of equal inspirations and expirations, and it breathes quietly, regularly, inaudibly, and without effort. But let inflammation of the air-tubes or lungs take place, and the inspiration will become in a few hours so quickened and hurried, and perhaps audible, that the attention has only to be directed to the circumstance to be at once perceived.

Now all changes which occur in the breathing from its healthy standard, however slight the shades of difference may be, it is most important should be noticed early. For many of the complaints in the chest, although very formidable in their character, if only seen early by the medical man, may be arrested in their progress; but otherwise, may be beyond the control of art. A parent, therefore, should make herself familiar with the breathing of her child in health, and she will readily mark any change which may arise.

Whenever a child has the symptoms of a common cold, attended by hoarseness and a rough cough, always look upon it with suspicion, and never neglect seeking a medical opinion. Hoarseness does not usually attend a common cold in the child, and these symptoms may be premonitory of an attack of “croup;” a disease excessively rapid in its progress, and which, from the importance of the parts affected, carrying on, as they do, a function indispensably necessary to life, requires the most prompt and decided treatment.

The following observations of Dr. Cheyne are so strikingly illustrative, and so pertinent to my present purpose, that I cannot refrain inserting them: “In the approach of an attack of croup, which almost always takes place in the evening, probably of a day during which the child has been exposed to the weather, and often after catarrhal symptoms have existed for several days, he may be observed to be excited, in variable spirits, more ready than usual to laugh than to cry, a little flushed, occasionally coughing, the sound of the cough being rough, like that which attends the catarrhal stage of the measles. More generally, however, the patient has been for some time in bed and asleep, before the nature of the disease with which he is threatened is apparent; then, perhaps, without waking, he gives a very unusual cough, well known to any one who has witnessed an attack of the croup; it rings as if the child had coughed through a brazen trumpet; it is truly a tussis clangosa; it penetrates the walls and floor of the apartment, and startles the experienced mother, ‘Oh! I am afraid our child is taking the croup!’ She runs to the nursery, finds her child sleeping softly, and hopes she may be mistaken. But remaining to tend him, before long the ringing cough, a single cough, is repeated again and again; the patient is roused, and then a new symptom is remarked; the sound of his voice is changed; puling, and as if the throat were swelled, it corresponds with the cough,” etc.

How important that a mother should be acquainted with the above signs of one of the most terrific complaints to which childhood is subject; for, if she only send for medical assistance during its first stage, the treatment will be almost invariably successful; whereas, if this “golden opportunity” is lost, this disease will seldom yield to the influence of measures, however wisely chosen or perseveringly employed.